Commentary on The Hadith Pertaining to Changing Munkar

Re-posting this from http://www.islaam.net/main/display_article_printview.php?id=1377

Abu Sa”id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) had said:
“Whoever amongst you sees anything objectionable, let him change it with his hand, if he is not able, then with his tongue, and if he is not even able to do so, then with his heart, and the latter is the weakest form of faith.”[1]

This Hadith was also transmitted in another form on the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud who narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:

“Never before me had a Prophet been sent by Allah to his nation who had not among his people disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who said whatever they did not practice, and practised whatever they were not commanded to do. He who strove against them with his hand was a believer; he who strove against them with his tongue was a believer; and he who strove against them with his heart was a believer; and beyond that there is no faith, not even as minute as a mustard seed.”[2]

On the authority of ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: “There shall be much tumult after me and, in such times, a believer will not be able to change anything (Munkar) with his hand or his tongue.”I said: “O Messenger of Allah, what should they do then?” He said: “They should denounce it with their hearts?”I said: “0 Messenger of Allah, will this make them any less believers?” He (SAW) said: “No. Only as much as a few drops effect a reservoir of clear water.”

These Hadiths, and others, convey a similar message and show that the obligation to denounce and change Munkar is conditional on the ability to do so, while disapproving of it with the heart is a must for all Muslims regardless of ability; for the heart that does not deny Munkar is a heart that has lost all faith. Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

“The first type of Jihad you will be unable to perform is Jihad with your hands, then Jihad with your tongues, then Jihad with your hearts. He whose heart knows not Ma’roof nor disapproves of Munkar, has a heart that has been turned upside down.”

Bin Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, once heard a man say: “He who does not enjoin good and forbid evil is doomed to perish.” Ibn Mas’ud said: “He shall perish whose heart does not recognize good and evil.” This indicates that to differentiate between good and evil with the heart is an obligation binding on every Muslim, and that he who does not recognize them is doomed; while to show disapproval of evil and attempt to change it with the hand or tongue is only a binding obligation for those Muslims capable of doing so.

Bin Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

“Those of you who live on (after me) will almost reach a stage when all they would be able to do towards evil that Allah would know from their hearts that they detest it.”

The Prophet (SAW) said:

“If a sin is committed on this earth, he who witnessed it and disapproved of it is equal to a person who has not witnessed it, while he who has not witnessed it but approved of it is equal to a person who has witnessed it.”[3]

So, he who has witnessed a sin being committed and detested it with his heart but was unable to show his disapproval with his hands or tongue, is equal to a person who has not witnessed it at all. While he who had not witnessed it but approved of it is like a person who had witnessed it and was able to change it with his hands or tongue but did not do so.

To accept sins is the most hideous of all prohibitions, it is the antithesis of disapproving with the heart.

Showing disapproval with the hands and tongue is dependent on the ability to do so, as mentioned above. Abi Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said:

“There are no people in whose midst sins are committed, and they do not change this situation although it is in their powers to do so, except that Allah will be near to overtaking them all with His punishment.”[4]

Abu Sai’d, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said in a sermon: “Verily, fear of people should not stop a man from speaking out the truth he knows.”Upon hearing this, Abu Sai’d wept and said: “By Allah, we have seen things (for which we should have spoken out the truth) but we were silenced by fear (of people).”[5]

Imam Ahmad also narrated the same Hadith with an addition: “It does not bring death nearer nor pushes earnings farther to speak the truth or remind a powerful man of it.”[6]

The Prophet”s (SAW) saying about disapproving with the heart only, that “it is the weakest form of faith”, indicates that enjoining good and forbidding evil is one of the aspects of faith. And his saying (SAW) “whoever amongst you sees anything objectionable” indicates that disapproving is conditional on seeing. If the objectionable thing was hidden from sight and the believer only learned of it indirectly, he must neither deal with it nor go searching for it if he suspects its existence.

Reasons For Enjoining Good And Forbidding Evil

These reasons are:

  • Aspiring for Allah’s reward for doing so.
  • Fearing Allah’s punishment for neglecting this duty.
  • Experiencing rage due to transgressions of bounds and prohibitions laid down by Allah.
  • Wishing well for the believers, feeling compassion and mercy towards them, and hoping to save them from Allah’s punishment and wrath in this life and the Hereafter for the wrongs they had allowed themselves to commit.
  • Exaltation of Allah, glorifying and loving Him. He is entitled to be obeyed, never to be disobeyed; remembered, never forgotten; that life and wealth be sacrificed to safeguard his bounds against transgression. Some of our predecessors used to say: “I wish that all creation would obey Allah, even if the price for this would be that my flesh is torn apart with clippers.”
  • Abdul-Malik Ibn Omar Ibn Abdul-Aziz used to say to his father: “I wish that we would be boiled in a cooking pot if this would please Allah.”

_______________________________________________

1 Reported by Muslim.

2 Reported by Muslim.

3 Reported Abu Dawud.

4 Reported by Abu Dawud.

5 Reported by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.

6 Imam Ahmed.

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10 days of Dhul Hijjah: 4 Important Deeds

Importance of the First 10 Days of Dhul Hijjah:

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are no days on which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allaah than these ten days.” They said: “Not even jihad for the sake of Allaah?” He said: “Not even jihad for the sake of Allaah, unless a man goes out himself for jihad taking his wealth with him and does not come back with anything.”(Sahih Bukhari)

Four Important Deeds:

1- Fasting

It was narrated from Hunaydah ibn Khaalid from his wife, that one of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast on the first nine days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and the day of ‘Ashoora’, and three days each month, the first Monday of the month and two Thursdays.(Nasaa’i,  Abu Dawood; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani)

2-  Reciting tahmeed, tahleel and takbeer a great deal 

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are no days that are greater before Allaah or in which good deeds are more beloved to Him, than these ten days, so recite a great deal of tahleel, takbeer and tahmeed during them.”(Ahmad, classed as saheeh by Ahmad Shaakir)

Note:

takbeer is saying Allaahu akbar (Allaah is most great)

tahmeed is saying al-hamdu Lillah (praise be to Allaah)

tahleel is saying Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (There is no god but Allaah)

tasbeeh is saying Subhaan-Allaah (Glory be to Allaah)

3-  Doing Hajj and ‘Umrah 

4- Udhiyah (sacrifice) 

The Bent Rib

-The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Treat women kindly, for woman was created from a bent rib, and the most crooked part of the rib is the top part, so treat women kindly.”

(Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim)

-In another narration he صلى الله عليه وسلم  said: “Woman was created from a rib, and if you try to straighten a rib you will break it, so deal with her gently.”

(Musnad Ahmad)

What will happen after we die?

In a well-known and long hadith, the Companion of the Prophet ﷺ al-Bara bin Aazib ؓ narrates that:

“We went out with the Messenger of Allah for the funeral of a man from among the Ansar. We came to the grave and the lahd (a niche on the side of the grave) was not yet dug.  The Messenger of Allah sat down and we sat around him, as if there were birds on our heads (i.e. quiet and still). In his hand he had a stick with which he was scratching the ground.

(In another narration he gazed at the sky and then down to the ground, repeating this three times).

Then he raised his head and said, ‘Seek refuge with Allah from the torment of the grave’, two or three times.

Then he prayed thrice:

اَللّٰھُمَّ اِنِّیْ اَعُوْذُبِکَ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ

‘O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the torment of the grave’

 Then he said, ‘When the believing slave is about to depart this world and enter the Hereafter, there come down to him from heaven angels with white faces like the sun, and they sit around him as far as the eye can see. They bring with them shrouds from Paradise and perfumes from Paradise. Then the Angel of Death comes and sits by his head, and he says,

‘O good soul, come forth to forgiveness from Allah and His pleasure.’

Then it comes out easily like a drop of water from the mouth of a water-skin.

 When he (the Angel of Death) seizes it (i.e. the soul), they (the other angels) do not leave it in his hand for an instant before they take it and put it in that shroud with that perfume, and there comes from it a fragrance like the finest musk on the face of the earth.

Regarding this Allah says in the Quran:

الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ

‘…when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take him, and they do not fail [in their duties].’

(Chapter 6, Surah Al-An’am, Ayah 61)

 (In another narration, he ﷺ said: “….Until his soul comes out, every angel between the heavens and earth will pray for him, as will every angel in heaven.  The gates of heaven will be opened for him, and the people in every level of heaven will pray to Allah to permit his soul to ascend through their domain.”)

Then they (the angels) ascend and they do not pass by any group of angels but they say, ‘Who is this good soul?’

They say, ‘It is So and so the son of So and so,’ calling him by the best names by which he was known in this world, until they reach the lowest heaven. They ask for it to be opened to them and it is opened, and (the soul) is welcomed and accompanied to the next heaven by those who are closest to Allah, until they reach the seventh heaven.

Then Allah  says: ‘Record the book of My slave in ‘Illiyyun in the seventh heaven,’

Allah mentions this in the Quran:

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا عِلِّيُّونَ
كِتَابٌ مَّرْقُومٌ
يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

‘And what can make you know what is ‘Illiyyun? It is [their destination recorded in] a register inscribed. Which is witnessed by those brought near [to Allah].’

(Chapter 83, Surah Al-Mutaffifin, Ayah 19-21)

 (Then Allah  says) ‘And return him to the earth, for from it I created them, to it I will return them and from it I will bring them forth once again.’ So his soul is returned to his body (he hears the beat of their sandals when they go back). 

Then there come to him two angels who make him sit up,

And they say to him:  مَنْ رَبُّكَ (‘Who is your Lord?’)

He says: رَبِّيَ اللَّهُ (‘Allah’ )

They say   مَا دِينُك(‘What is your religion?’)

He says:   دِينِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ (‘My religion is Islam’)

They say:   مَا هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي بُعِثَ فِيكُمْ (‘Who is this man who was sent among you?’ )

He says:   هُوَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (‘He is the Messenger of Allah ﷺ’ )

They say:   مَا عِلْمُك (‘Who made you aware of this?’)[In another narration, the question is : “ما عملك”(‘What did you do?’)]

He says: قَرَأْتُ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ فَآمَنْتُ بِهِ وَصَدَّقْتُ  (‘I read the Book of Allah, believed in it, and confirmed it’)

This will be the last trial on earth for the believer, about which is said in the Quran:

يُثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ

‘Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life and in the Hereafter.’

(Chapter 14, Surah Ibrahim, Ayah 27)

So he will answer my Lord is Allah, my religion is Islam and my Prophet is Mohammad .

 Thereafter, a voice will call from Heaven, ‘My slave has spoken the Truth, so furnish his grave from Paradise and clothe him from Paradise, and open for him a gate to Paradise.’  Some of its breeze and scent will reach him, and his grave will be widened for him as far as the eye can see. 

 (Then) there will appear before him a handsome, well dressed, and finely scented man, saying, ‘I bring you good news which shall make you happy.  I bring you good news of the good pleasure of Allah and Gardens of eternal blessing.  This is the day you were promised.’ 

 He will say, ‘And you, may Allah give you better news, who are you?’ 

 He will say, ‘I am your good deeds, and by Allah I only ever saw you hastening to obey Allah, and ever reluctant to disobey Him, so may Allah reward you with good.’

 Then a gate of Paradise and a gate of Hell will open for him.  And it will be said: ‘This is your place if you had disobeyed Allah, but Allah has given you this instead of that.’ 

 When he sees what is in Paradise he will say, ‘O Lord, hasten the Hour so that I may return to my family and my wealth.’  It will be said, ‘Dwell in patience.’

 As for the disbelieving (corrupt) man, when he leaves this world and enters the Hereafter, stern and harsh angels come down to him from heaven, their faces are black and they bring with them sack-cloth from Hell.  They sit around him as far as the eye can see.  Then the Angel of Death comes and sits at his head and says, ‘Come out O evil soul to the anger and wrath of Allah!’

 The soul will be dragged out of his body with as much difficulty as a many-pronged skewer being dragged through wet wool (the veins and nerves will be destroyed by it.)
He will be cursed by every angel between the heaven and the earth, and by every angel in the heaven.  The gates of heaven will be locked and the people of every heaven will pray to Allah to not allow his soul to ascend through their domain.
 

 Then they ascend and they do not pass by any group of angels but they say, ‘Who is this evil soul?’

And they say, ‘It is So and so the son of So and so’, calling him by the worst names by which he was known in this world, until they reach the lowest heaven. They ask for it to be opened to them and it is not opened.

 Then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ recited:

لَا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَلَا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ حَتَّىٰ يَلِجَ الْجَمَلُ فِي سَمِّ الْخِيَاط

 ‘The gates of Heaven will not be opened for them, nor will they enter Paradise until a camel enters into the eye of a needle.’

(Chapter 7, Surah Al-A’raf, Ayah 40)

 He ﷺ said: ‘Then Allah says, ‘Record the book of My slave in Sijjeen in the lowest earth, and return him to the earth, for from it I created them, to it I will return them and from it I will bring them forth once again.’ So his soul is cast down.

 Then the Messenger of Allah ﷺ recited the verse:

وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَكَأَنَّمَا خَرَّ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتَخْطَفُهُ الطَّيْرُ أَوْ تَهْوِي بِهِ الرِّيحُ فِي مَكَانٍ سَحِيقٍ

‘And he who associates with Allah – it is as though he had fallen from the sky and was snatched by the birds or the wind carried him down into a remote place.’

(Chapter 22, Surah Al-Hajj, Ayah 31)

He ﷺ said: ‘So his soul will be returned to his body (and he will hear the footsteps of his companions when they leave him). Two stern angels will come to him, rebuke him and sit him up.  ‘Who is your Lord?’

He says: ‘Oh, oh, I don’t know.’

They say: ‘What is your religion?’

He says: ‘Oh, oh, I don’t know.’

They will ask: ‘What do you say about this man who was sent among you?’

He will not even know his name.  But he will be told: ‘Muhammad ’. 

And he will say: ‘Oh, oh, I don’t know. I heard the people saying such and such.’ 

He will be told: ‘May you never know.’

Then a voice will call from heaven and will say, ‘He has lied. Furnish his grave from Hell and open for him a gate from Hell.’  

So some of his heat and hot winds will reach him and his grave will be constricted until his ribs are crushed together.

 There will appear before him a man with an ugly face, badly dressed, and foul smelling.  He will say, ‘I bring you bad news, this is the day you were promised. 

He will say, ‘And you, May Allah give you even worse news!  Who are you? Your face brings bad news!’ 

He will say, ‘I am your evil deeds, by Allah I only ever saw you reluctant to obey Allah and ever eager to disobey Him. May Allah repay you with evil.’

 Then there will be sent to him one who is blind, deaf, and dumb.  Who will carry in his hand an iron rod which if he were to beat a mountain with it, it would turn to dust.  He will beat him with it until he turns to dust.  Then Allah will restore him then he will be beaten again.  He will emit a scream which the whole of creation will hear except men and jinn.

A door of hell will be opened unto him within his grave and will spread out for him sheets of hell fire.

He will say, ‘My Lord, may the hour never come.’

(Musnad Ahmad/Hakim)

 

Bonds will be undone!

Narrated Abu Umaamah al-Baahili رضي الله عنه  from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, who said:

“The bonds of Islam will be undone one by one. Each time one bond is undone, the people will move to the next one (and adhere to that). The first bond to be undone will be ruling (al-hukm) and the last one will be prayer (al-salaah).”

The meaning of this hadeeth is apparent, which is that the more Islam becomes “strange”, the more people will go against its teachings and will undo its bonds, which is a reference to its obligations and commandments.
1) The first will be failure to rule according to the sharee’ah of Allaah.
2) The last will be As-Salah, it refers to large numbers of people who will not pray and will be negligent with regard to salah.

Reference:The hadeeth mentioned was narrated by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad, al-Tabaraani in al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer, and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh, with a jayyid isnaad.

الَّذِينَ إِن مَّكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا

بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ

“(And they are) those who, if We give them authority in the land, establish prayer and give zakah and enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. And to Allah belongs the outcome of (all) matters.”

[al-Hajj 22:40-41]

Tawfeeq

It is reported by Ahmad from Anas that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said,“Do not become amazed at anyone until you see how his life ends, for a person may work all of his life or a portion of his life in righteous deeds that were he to die upon it he’d enter Paradise, but he diverts and does evil deeds. And a slave may spend a portion of his life doing evil that were he to die upon it he’d enter Hellfire, but he diverts and does righteous deeds. And if Allah wishes good for a slave, he utilises him before his death.” They said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! How does He utilise him?’ He said, “He grants him tawfiq to perform righteous deeds, then he takes his life therein.”

یا مُصرِّفَ القلوبِ صَرِّف قلوبنا على طاعتِك

“O Turner of the hearts, direct our hearts to Your obedience.”

یا مقلب القلوب ثبت قلوبنا علیٰ دینک

O Turner of the hearts, make our heart firm upon Your Religion.”

رَبَّنَا لاَ تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

“Our Lord! let not Our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and grant us Mercy from you. Truly, You are the Bestower.”

An angel is responding on your behalf

Reported Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه : Once, a person was verbally abusing Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) while the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was curiously watching with a smile. After taking much abuse quietly, Abu Bakr responded to a few of his comments. At this, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم exhibited his disapproval, got up and left. Abu Bakr caught up with the Prophet and wondered, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he was abusing me and you remained sitting. When I responded to him, you disapproved and got up.’ The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم responded,
‘There was an angel with you responding to him. When you responded to him, Satan took his place.’ He then said ..

‘O Abu Bakr, there are three solid truths: If a person is wronged and he forbears it (without seeking revenge) just for the sake of Allaah almighty, Allaah will honour him and give him the upper hand with His help; if a person opens a door of giving gifts for cementing relationships with relatives, Allaah will give him abundance; and, if a person opens a door of seeking charity for himself to increase his wealth, Allaah will further reduce his wealth.’

( Mishkaah and Musnad Ahmad)

Enthusiasm

Imam Ahmad narrated, in a report that was classed as saheeh by al-Albaani, that ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Amr رضي الله عنه  said: The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وسلم  said:

“Every action starts with enthusiasm, then the enthusiasm wanes; anyone whose enthusiasm wanes but (remains within the limits of) my Sunnah will prosper, but anyone whose enthusiasm wanes and drifts away to something else, will be doomed.”

————-

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Every worshipper goes through a period of intense fervor and that period then comes to an end.” He observed some people going to enormous lengths in their worship of Allah and said: “That is the most intense and enthusiastic expression of Islam. Every period of such fervor has its period of time that is followed by a milder period. If that milder period is one of moderation, correctness, and balance, then this is quite good. If that period is a period of sin, then it leads to destruction.

(Musnad Ahmad)

What this means is that there may be times when a person is very energetic and enthusiastic about worship and acts of obedience, then these energetic times are followed by a decrease in enthusiasm, laziness and a drop from the level previously reached. This is something natural and there is the hope that the individual will still prosper, but that is only if, during the times of decreased enthusiasm and weakness, he does not neglect the obligatory duties, because if he abandons them or takes them lightly, he will be doomed.(1)

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه  that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  said:

“Every deed has a period of enthusiasm, and every period of enthusiasm is followed by a slackening off. If a person is moderate and avoids extremes, then you may have hope for him, but if fingers are pointed at him, then do not count him as anything.”

(Tirmidhi, 2453-classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb, 57)

Al-Mubaarakfoori (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“Every deed has a period of enthusiasm” means, enthusiasm and energy for doing a thing, whether it is for good or evil.

“and every period of enthusiasm is followed by a slackening off” means, one becomes tired, weak and lethargic

“If a person is moderate and avoids extremes” means, if he controls his enthusiasm and avoids the extremes of excess and negligence when his enthusiasm wanes.

“then you may have hope for him” means, there is the hope that he will succeed, for he can continue to adhere to something moderate, and the most beloved of deeds to Allaah are those which are done consistently.

“but if fingers are pointed at him” means, he is striving hard in order to become famous for his worship and asceticism, so that he will be famous and people will point at him.

“then do not count him as anything” means, do not think of him as special or regard him as one of the righteous, for he is showing off. He did not say, “Do not have any hope for him,” because he has already fallen and he cannot catch up with what he has missed.

(Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, 7/126)(2)

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