Commentary on The Hadith Pertaining to Changing Munkar

Re-posting this from http://www.islaam.net/main/display_article_printview.php?id=1377

Abu Sa”id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) had said:
“Whoever amongst you sees anything objectionable, let him change it with his hand, if he is not able, then with his tongue, and if he is not even able to do so, then with his heart, and the latter is the weakest form of faith.”[1]

This Hadith was also transmitted in another form on the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud who narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said:

“Never before me had a Prophet been sent by Allah to his nation who had not among his people disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who said whatever they did not practice, and practised whatever they were not commanded to do. He who strove against them with his hand was a believer; he who strove against them with his tongue was a believer; and he who strove against them with his heart was a believer; and beyond that there is no faith, not even as minute as a mustard seed.”[2]

On the authority of ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: “There shall be much tumult after me and, in such times, a believer will not be able to change anything (Munkar) with his hand or his tongue.”I said: “O Messenger of Allah, what should they do then?” He said: “They should denounce it with their hearts?”I said: “0 Messenger of Allah, will this make them any less believers?” He (SAW) said: “No. Only as much as a few drops effect a reservoir of clear water.”

These Hadiths, and others, convey a similar message and show that the obligation to denounce and change Munkar is conditional on the ability to do so, while disapproving of it with the heart is a must for all Muslims regardless of ability; for the heart that does not deny Munkar is a heart that has lost all faith. Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

“The first type of Jihad you will be unable to perform is Jihad with your hands, then Jihad with your tongues, then Jihad with your hearts. He whose heart knows not Ma’roof nor disapproves of Munkar, has a heart that has been turned upside down.”

Bin Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, once heard a man say: “He who does not enjoin good and forbid evil is doomed to perish.” Ibn Mas’ud said: “He shall perish whose heart does not recognize good and evil.” This indicates that to differentiate between good and evil with the heart is an obligation binding on every Muslim, and that he who does not recognize them is doomed; while to show disapproval of evil and attempt to change it with the hand or tongue is only a binding obligation for those Muslims capable of doing so.

Bin Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

“Those of you who live on (after me) will almost reach a stage when all they would be able to do towards evil that Allah would know from their hearts that they detest it.”

The Prophet (SAW) said:

“If a sin is committed on this earth, he who witnessed it and disapproved of it is equal to a person who has not witnessed it, while he who has not witnessed it but approved of it is equal to a person who has witnessed it.”[3]

So, he who has witnessed a sin being committed and detested it with his heart but was unable to show his disapproval with his hands or tongue, is equal to a person who has not witnessed it at all. While he who had not witnessed it but approved of it is like a person who had witnessed it and was able to change it with his hands or tongue but did not do so.

To accept sins is the most hideous of all prohibitions, it is the antithesis of disapproving with the heart.

Showing disapproval with the hands and tongue is dependent on the ability to do so, as mentioned above. Abi Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said:

“There are no people in whose midst sins are committed, and they do not change this situation although it is in their powers to do so, except that Allah will be near to overtaking them all with His punishment.”[4]

Abu Sai’d, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said in a sermon: “Verily, fear of people should not stop a man from speaking out the truth he knows.”Upon hearing this, Abu Sai’d wept and said: “By Allah, we have seen things (for which we should have spoken out the truth) but we were silenced by fear (of people).”[5]

Imam Ahmad also narrated the same Hadith with an addition: “It does not bring death nearer nor pushes earnings farther to speak the truth or remind a powerful man of it.”[6]

The Prophet”s (SAW) saying about disapproving with the heart only, that “it is the weakest form of faith”, indicates that enjoining good and forbidding evil is one of the aspects of faith. And his saying (SAW) “whoever amongst you sees anything objectionable” indicates that disapproving is conditional on seeing. If the objectionable thing was hidden from sight and the believer only learned of it indirectly, he must neither deal with it nor go searching for it if he suspects its existence.

Reasons For Enjoining Good And Forbidding Evil

These reasons are:

  • Aspiring for Allah’s reward for doing so.
  • Fearing Allah’s punishment for neglecting this duty.
  • Experiencing rage due to transgressions of bounds and prohibitions laid down by Allah.
  • Wishing well for the believers, feeling compassion and mercy towards them, and hoping to save them from Allah’s punishment and wrath in this life and the Hereafter for the wrongs they had allowed themselves to commit.
  • Exaltation of Allah, glorifying and loving Him. He is entitled to be obeyed, never to be disobeyed; remembered, never forgotten; that life and wealth be sacrificed to safeguard his bounds against transgression. Some of our predecessors used to say: “I wish that all creation would obey Allah, even if the price for this would be that my flesh is torn apart with clippers.”
  • Abdul-Malik Ibn Omar Ibn Abdul-Aziz used to say to his father: “I wish that we would be boiled in a cooking pot if this would please Allah.”

_______________________________________________

1 Reported by Muslim.

2 Reported by Muslim.

3 Reported Abu Dawud.

4 Reported by Abu Dawud.

5 Reported by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.

6 Imam Ahmed.

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Al-Asr- Before Parting Ways

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

وَالْعَصْرِ

By time,

إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ

Indeed, mankind is in loss,

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.

It is prescribed for one of the people present to recite Surah al-‘Asr when ending the gathering, because of the report narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Awsat (5124) from Abu Madeenah al-Daarimi رضي الله عنه  who was a companion of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم . He said: When two men of the companions of the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم  met, they would not part until one of them recited “By Al‑‘Asr (the time), Verily, man is in loss” [al-‘Asr] over the other, then one would say salaam to the other.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (no. 2648).

10 days of Dhul Hijjah: 4 Important Deeds

Importance of the First 10 Days of Dhul Hijjah:

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are no days on which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allaah than these ten days.” They said: “Not even jihad for the sake of Allaah?” He said: “Not even jihad for the sake of Allaah, unless a man goes out himself for jihad taking his wealth with him and does not come back with anything.”(Sahih Bukhari)

Four Important Deeds:

1- Fasting

It was narrated from Hunaydah ibn Khaalid from his wife, that one of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to fast on the first nine days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and the day of ‘Ashoora’, and three days each month, the first Monday of the month and two Thursdays.(Nasaa’i,  Abu Dawood; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani)

2-  Reciting tahmeed, tahleel and takbeer a great deal 

It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There are no days that are greater before Allaah or in which good deeds are more beloved to Him, than these ten days, so recite a great deal of tahleel, takbeer and tahmeed during them.”(Ahmad, classed as saheeh by Ahmad Shaakir)

Note:

takbeer is saying Allaahu akbar (Allaah is most great)

tahmeed is saying al-hamdu Lillah (praise be to Allaah)

tahleel is saying Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (There is no god but Allaah)

tasbeeh is saying Subhaan-Allaah (Glory be to Allaah)

3-  Doing Hajj and ‘Umrah 

4- Udhiyah (sacrifice) 

The Bent Rib

-The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Treat women kindly, for woman was created from a bent rib, and the most crooked part of the rib is the top part, so treat women kindly.”

(Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim)

-In another narration he صلى الله عليه وسلم  said: “Woman was created from a rib, and if you try to straighten a rib you will break it, so deal with her gently.”

(Musnad Ahmad)

Du’a- I’m in a hurry?!

Narrated Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه : The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “There is no man who prays to Allah and makes du’a to Him, and does not receive a response. Either it will be hastened for him in this world, or it will be stored up for him in the Hereafter, so long as he does not pray for something sinful, or to cut the ties of kinship, or seek a speedy response.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah, what does seeking a speedy response mean?” He said, “Saying, ‘I prayed to my Lord and He did not answer me.’”

(Tirmidhi- Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani )

Fardh+Nawafil= Acceptance of Duas

Abû Hurayrah – radiallâhu ’anhu – relates that the Messenger of Allâh sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam said:

“Allâh – the Most High – has said: “Whosoever shows enmity to a friend of Mine, I shall be at war with him.My servant does not draw near to Me with anything more beloved to Me than the Fardh(obligatory duties). And My servant continues to draw near to Me with the Nawafil (optional) actions, so that I shall love him. So when I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask something of Me, I would surely give it to him; and were he to ask Me for shelter, I would surely grant him it.”

(Sahih Bukhari)

Upholding ties of kinship

“And Those who sever(relations) that which Allah has ordered to be joined and spread corruption on earth – for them is the curse, and they will have the worst home”

(Chapter 13, Surah Ar-Ra’d, Ayah 25)

Narrated ‘Aisha رضی اللہ عنہا: (the wife of the Prophet) The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “The word ‘Ar-Rahm’ (womb) derives its name from ‘Ar-Rahman’ (i.e. Allah). So whosoever keeps good relations with it (womb i.e. Kith and kin), Allah will keep good relations with him, and whosoever will sever it (i.e. severs his bonds of Kith and kin) Allah too will sever His relations with him.
(Sahih Bukhari)

Abu Huraira رضي الله عنه reported that a person said: Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, I have relatives with whom I try, to have close relationship, but they sever (this relation). I treat them well, but they treat me ill. I am sweet to them but they are harsh towards me. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: If it is so as you say, then you in fact throw hot ashes (upon their faces) and there would always remain with you on behalf of Allah (an Angel to support you) who would keep you dominant over them so long as you adhere to this (path of righteousness).
(Sahih Muslim)

Narrated Abdullah bin ‘Amrرضي الله عنه: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, “Al-Wasil is not the one who recompenses the good done to him by his relatives, but Al-Wasil is the one who keeps good relations with those relatives who had severed the bond of kinship with him.”

(Sahih Bukhari)

Qadr- Divine Decree

Excerpt from: http://islamqa.info/en/49004

What is meant by belief in al-qada’ (the Divine will) is: certain belief that everything that happens in this universe happens by the will and decree of Allaah.

The meaning of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Arabic:
The word qada’ means perfection and completion, and the word qadar means evaluating and planning.

Definition of al-qada’ wa’l-qadar in Islamic terminology:
Qadar means Allaah’s decree of all things from eternity, and His knowledge that they will come to pass at the times that are known to Him and in the specific manner that He has decreed and willed. They will happen the way they are meant to and the way they are created.

Is there a difference between al-qada’ and al-qadar?
Some of the scholars said that there was a difference between them, but perhaps the most correct view is that there is no difference in meaning between al-qada’ and al-qadar, and that each of them points to the meaning of the other. There is no clear evidence in the Qur’aan or Sunnah to indicate that there is a difference between them. The scholars are agreed that the one may be applied to the other, but it should be noted that the word qadar is most usually used in the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, which indicates that we must believe in this pillar. And Allaah knows best.

The status of belief in al-qadar in Islam:
Belief in al-qadar is one of the six pillars of faith which were mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when Jibreel (peace be upon him) asked him about faith (eemaan). He said: “(It is) to believe in Allaah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in the Divine will and decree (al-qadar) both good and bad.” (Sahih Muslim)
Al-qadar is also mentioned in the Qur’aan, where Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Verily, We have created all things with Qadar”
[al-Qamar 54:49]
“And the Command of Allaah is a decree determined [qadran maqdooran]”
[al-Ahzaab 33:38]

Aspects of belief in al-qadar:
Belief in al-qadar is not valid unless you believe in the four aspects of al-qadar, which are as follows:

1 – Knowledge: Belief that Allaah knows all things, in general terms and in detail, from eternity to eternity. Not a single atom is unknown to Him in the heavens or on earth.
“and that Allaah surrounds all things in (His) Knowledge”
[al-Talaaq 65:12]

2 – Writing: Belief that Allaah has decreed all things in al-Lawh al-Mahfooz, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.
The evidence for that is the verse in which He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Know you not that Allaah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz). Verily, that is easy for Allaah”
[al-Hajj 22:16]
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah wrote the decrees concerning all created beings fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.”
(Sahih Muslim)

3 – Will: Belief that the will of Allaah is irresistable and His decree is comprehensive, so nothing happens in this universe, good or bad, but by His will.
“And never say of anything, ‘I shall do such and such thing tomorrow.’
 Except (with the saying), ‘If Allaah wills!’”
[al-Kahf 18:23, 24]
“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:29]

4 –  Creation:  Belief that all that exists was created by Allaah. He is the Creator of all beings and the Creator of their attributes and actions, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah is the Creator of all things”
[al-Zumar 39:62]
“While Allaah has created you and what you make”
[al-Saaffaat 37:96]
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allah has created every doer of deeds and what he does.”
(Sahih Bukhari )
Shaykh Ibn Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Just as Allaah is the One Who created them – meaning people – He has also created that by means of which they act, namely their abilities and will, then they do various actions of obedience and sin, by the abilities and will which Allaah has created. (al-Durrah al-Bahiyyah Sharh al-Qaseedah al-Taa’iyyah, p. 18).

Correct belief in al-qadar also involves believing in the following:

1)  That the individual has free will by means of which he acts, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight”
[al-Takweer 81:28]
“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”
[al-Baqarah 2:286]
2) That a person’s will and ability do not operate outside the will and decree of Allaah, Who is the One Who has given him that ability and made him able to distinguish (between good and evil) and make his choice, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allaah wills the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that exists)”
[al-Takweer 81:29]
3) That al-qadar is Allaah’s plan for His creation. What He has shown us of it, we know and believe in, and what He has hidden from us, we accept and believe in. We do not dispute with Allaah concerning His actions and rulings with our limited minds and comprehension, rather we believe in Allaah’s complete justice and wisdom, and that He is not to be asked about what He does, may He be glorified and praised.

Warning against arguing about issues of al-qadar on the basis of (human) reasoning:
It was narrated from Ibn Mas’ood that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If my companions are mentioned, then keep quiet; if the stars are mentioned, then keep quiet; and if the divine decree is mentioned, then keep quiet.”
(Tabaraani in al-Kabeer-classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah)

Minor Shirk- Riya!

What is Minor Shirk?

It is narrated that Mahmoud ibn Labeed said: The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ said: “The thing that I fear most for you is minor shirk.” They said: “O Messenger of Allaah, what is minor shirk?” He said: “Showing off, for Allaah will say on the Day when people are recompensed for their actions: ‘Go to those for whom you were showing off with your deeds in the world, and see what reward you find with them.’” (Al-Musnad- classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah)

Deeds tainted by Riya are not accepted by Allah:

Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ said: “Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, says: ‘I am so self-sufficient that I am in no need of having an associate. Thus he who does an action for someone else’s sake as well as Mine will have that action renounced by Me to him whom he associated with Me.’” (Sahih Muslim)

“(And whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord…) (Surah Al-Kahf V:110). Ibn ‘Abbasرضي الله عنه  said: “This verse was revealed about Jundub ibn Zuhayr al-’Amiri رضي الله عنه  who said: ‘I do the deed seeking Allah but I get happy when other people come to know about it’. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ said to him: ‘Allah, exalted is He, is pure and does not accept except that which is pure. He does not accept that in which other than Him is associated’. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed this verse”. (Tafsir Asbab Al Nuzul)

Narrated Jundubرضي الله عنه: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم‎ said, “He who lets the people hear of his good deeds intentionally, to win their praise, Allah will let the people know his real intention (on the Day of Resurrection), and he who does good things in public to show off and win the praise of the people, Allah will disclose his real intention (and humiliate him).  (Sahih Bukhari)

How can I save myself from showing off?

The most important thing is that we should make our niyah sincerely for Allah, but sometimes riya creeps in unnoticed even when our initial intentions were pure.

Here are three tips to help save ourselves from this sin.

1. Dua:

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “O people, beware of this shirk, for it is more subtle than the footsteps of an ant. The one whom Allaah willed should speak said to him, “How can we beware of it when it is more subtle than the footsteps of an ant, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said, “Say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّا نَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ أَنْ نُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيْئًا نَعْلَمُهُ وَنَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لَا نَعْلَمُ

Allaahumma innaa na’oodhu bika min an nushrika bika shay’an na’lamuhu wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na’lam (O Allaah, we seek refuge with You from knowingly associating anything with You, and we seek Your forgiveness for that which we do unknowingly).”(Ahmad- classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’)

2. Remember -Allah is Ever-Watching!

Whenever you do a good deed do it at the level of ‘Ihsaan’ (perfection). What is Ihsan?

Jibreel (peace be upon him) mentioned to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, ‘Ihsaan’ is that “you should worship Allaah as if you can see Him, and even though you cannot see Him, He can see you.” (Sahih  Muslim)

When we remmeber that Allah is Ever-watching of what we do, our intentions will automatically be focused on Him and what other people think of us will become very insignificant.

3. Beware of  the Punishment of Showing-off:

“When the Day of Resurrection comes, Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, will come down to judge between His slaves, and every nation will be kneeling. The first ones to be called forth will be a man who learned the Quran by heart, a man who fought for the sake of Allah, and a man who had a lot of wealth. Allah will say to the Quran-reader, ‘Did I not teach you that which I revealed to My Messenger?’ He will say, ‘Yes, O Lord.’ He will say, ‘What did you do with that which I taught you?’ He will say, ‘I used to read it night and day.’ Allah will say to him, ‘You have lied,’ and the angels will say to him, ‘You have lied.’ Allah will say, ‘Rather you wanted it to be said that So and so is a reader of Quran, and that is what was said.’ Then the wealthy man will be brought forth, and Allaah will say to him, ‘Did I not give you ample provision so that I did not leave you in need of anybody?’ He will say, ‘Yes, O Lord.’ He will say, ‘What did you do with that which I gave you?’ He will say, ‘I used to uphold the ties of kinship and give in charity.’ Allaah will say to him, ‘You have lied,’ and the angels will say to him, ‘You have lied.’ Allah will say, ‘Rather you wanted it to be said that So and so is generous, and that is what was said.’ Then the one who was killed for the sake of Allah will be brought forth and Allah will say to him, ‘Why were you killed?’ He will say, ‘I was commanded to fight in Jihad for Your sake, so I fought until I was killed.’ Allah will say to him, ‘You have lied,’ and the angels will say to him, ‘You have lied.’ Allah will say, ‘You wanted it to be said that So and so was courageous, and that is what was said.’” Then the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم struck my knee and said, “O Abu Hurayrah, these three are the first of the creation of Allah who will be dragged into the Fire on the Day of Resurrection.” (Tirmidhi- classed as saheeh by Ibn Hibbaan and Ibn Khuzaymah).

Let’s Celebrate…???

Before we proceed lets once and for all decide whether we are Muslims- ‘the ones who submit’ to Allah or not.

If we are, then there is a very important concept for us to understand.  The concept of celebration and festivals in Islam.How do we decide if a certain celebration is allowed in Islam or not. Should we as Muslims celebrate birthdays, mother’s day, valentine’s day, halloween, Mawlid al-Nabi (the Prophet’s birthday) etc or not?

Let’s see what does festival or ”Eid’ mean? ‘Eid’ (festival) is the name given to something which returns [ ‘ya’ood’ ], and is used to describe gatherings which happen repeatedly, on a yearly, monthly or weekly basis. ‘Eid’ includes a number of things, such as

1. a day which comes regularly, e.g., ‘Eid al-Fitr and Friday;

2. gatherings on that day;

3. actions such as acts of worship and/or customs which are done on that day.

Explaining the seriousness of celebrating festivals other than the Islamic Eids, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stated that some peoples or groups in his ummah would follow the People of the Book in some of their rituals and traditions, as is narrated in the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “They will follow the ways of those who came before them, handspan by handspan, cubit by cubit, until even if they entered a lizard’s hole they will follow them.” We said: “O Messenger of Allaah, (do you mean) the Jews and Christians?” He said: “Who else?” Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim

Any celebrations or  festivals, which are intended as:

1. Rituals, or

2. Acts of worship aimed at drawing closer to Allaah or glorifying Him in order to earn reward, or

3. Acts which involve imitating the people of Jaahiliyyah or any other groups of kaafirs,

is a prohibited bid’ah, an innovation which comes under the general meaning of the hadeeth: “Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it, will have it rejected.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim).

The festivals which are prescribed in Islam are well known to the Muslims: they are Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, and the weekly “Eid” of Jumu’ah. There is no other festival in Islam apart from these three. Let us adhere to this great religion and follow its etiquettes and rulings, for in it is sufficient guidance and mercy.

Compiled from:

1. http://islamqa.com/en/ref/59905

2. http://islamqa.com/en/ref/10070

An excellent read:

http://www.sahihalbukhari.com/sps/sp.cfm?subsecID=IBD15&articleID=IBD150001&articlePages=1

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